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Synergy between melamine cyanurate, melamine polyphosphate and aluminum diethylophosphinate in flame retarded thermoplastic polyurethane

: Sut, Aleksandra; Metzsch-Zilligen, Elke; Großhauser, Michael; Pfaendner, Rudolf; Schartel, Bernhard

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Polymer testing 74 (2019), S.196-204
ISSN: 0142-9418
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer LBF ()
thermoplastic polyutherane; synergy; melamine cyanurate; melamine polyphosphate; aluminum diethylphosphanite; rapid mass calorimeter

The multicomponent flame retardant system of melamine polyphosphate (MPP), melamine cyanurate (MC) and aluminum diethylphosphinate (AlPi) is proposed and investigated for thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The synergy between those additives and the resulting superior fire performance are discussed. Systematically varied sets of flame retarded TPU with various MPP/MC/AlPi ratios were investigated in terms of fire behavior, pyrolysis products and mechanical properties. The total amount of the additives was always 30 wt.-%. Further, the influence of various AlPi concentrations was investigated. The optimal MPP:MC ratio was determined while keeping the amount of AlPi constant. The combination of 8 wt.-% MPP, 12 wt.-% MC and 10 wt.-% is proposed as the most promising halogen free flame retardant formulation for TPU, because it yielded a reduction in PHRR from 2660 kW/m2 (TPU) to 452 kW/m2 and enabled V-0 classification in the UL 94 test. Combinations of MPP and MC as well a high concentration of AlPi are beneficial for the mechanical properties e.g. tensile strength and elongation at break of the formulations and could be a strong competitor to commercial flame retarded TPUs.