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Prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone attenuates vascular remodeling and pulmonary monocyte influx in experimental congenital diaphragmatic hernia

: Gosemann, Jan-Hendrik; Friedmacher, Florian; Hofmann, Alejandro; Zimmer, Julia; Kuebler, Joachim F.; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Suttkus, Anne; Lacher, Martin; Alvarez, Luis; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Puri, Prem

Volltext ()

PLoS one. Online journal 13 (2018), Nr.11, Art. e0206975, 14 S.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ITEM ()

INTRODUCTION: Extensive vascular remodeling causing pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents a major cause of mortality in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a biomarker for the severity of PH and its activation is accompanied by pulmonary influx of monocytes and extensive vascular remodeling. MCP-1 activation can be reversed by application of rosiglitazone (thiazolidinedione). We performed this study to evaluate the role of MCP-1 for the pathogenesis of PH in experimental CDH. We hypothesized that vascular remodeling and MCP-1 activation is accompanied by pulmonary influx of fetal monocytes and can be attenuated by prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone.
METHODS: In a first set of experiments pregnant rats were treated with either nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Fetal lungs were harvested on D21 and divided into CDH and control. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot (WB), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to evaluate MCP-1 expression, activation, and localization. Quantification and localization of pulmonary monocytes/macrophages were carried out by IHC. In a second set of experiments nitrofen-exposed dams were randomly assigned to prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone or placebo on D18+D19. Fetal lungs were harvested on D21, divided into control, CDH+rosiglitazone, and CDH+placebo and evaluated by WB as well as IHC.
RESULTS: Increased thickness of pulmonary arteries of CDH fetuses was accompanied by increased systemic and perivascular MCP-1 protein expression and significantly higher amounts of pulmonary monocytes/macrophages compared to controls (p<0.01). These effects were reversed by prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone (p<0.01 vs. CDH+P; control).
CONCLUSION: Prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone has the potential to attenuate activation of pulmonary MCP-1, pulmonary monocyte influx, and vascular remodeling in experimental CDH. These results provide a basis for future research on prenatal immunomodulation as a novel treatment strategy to decrease secondary effects of PH in CDH.