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Direct inscription and evaluation of fiber Bragg gratings in carbon-coated optical sensor glass fibers for harsh environment oil and gas applications

: Nedjalkov, A.; Meyer, J.; Waltermann, C.; Reimer, M.; Gillooly, A.; Angelmahr, M.; Schade, W.


Applied optics 57 (2018), Nr.26, S.7515-7525
ISSN: 0003-6935
ISSN: 1539-4522
ISSN: 1559-128X
Fraunhofer HHI ()

In this research work, we show the successful inscription of fiber Bragg gratings into carbon-coated pure silica as well as germanium-doped glass fibers by applying the pulsed laser point-by-point manufacturing technique. First, the parameters used for the Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser process are demonstrated. Without removing the polymeric carbon coating, destruction-free formation of highly reflective Bragg gratings is performed with selected types of hermetically enclosed fibers. We demonstrate the advantage of the carbon coating by long-term exposure to a pure hydrogen atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Such harsh conditions exist in the oil and gas industry, which means there is high application potential for technologically advanced optical sensors. Compared to the also examined standard glass fibers with a distinct signal attenuation, carbon-coated fibers show no significant degradation. Finally, we analyze the mechanical stability of the processed fibers via standardized tensile tests. No substantial decrease in strength occurs among the sensor-integrated samples.