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Fast RBC loading by fluorescent antibodies and nuclei staining dye and their potential bioanalytical applications

: Al-Essa, M.K.; Melzer, S.; Tarnok, A.; Hadidi, K.A.; El-Khateeb, M.


Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C 73 (2017), Nr.3-4, S.95-105
ISSN: 0341-0382
ISSN: 0939-5075
Fraunhofer IZI ()

This study was designed to load different antibodies (Abs) and a fluorescent dye onto the red blood cell (RBC) surface. We have used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugate anti-human Ab, CD22-PE (B-cell marker-phycoerythrin Ab), and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for insertion over the RBC surface. In a first step, conjugation experiments were performed: in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), RBCs were conserved and modified by succinic anhydride to create an additional -COOH group, and then activated with 3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide-N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS) in 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid hydrate buffer for insertion of labeled Abs or DAPI. In a second step, fluorescence signals were evaluated by microscopy and the mean fluorescence intensities of cell lysates were measured by spectrofluorometry. The results showed clear evidence for adsorption of FITC- and PE-labeled Abs to activated conserved RBCs. DAPI was adsorbed well also to DMSO-conserved RBCs without the need for an activation step. The DMSO conservation step was enough to create reactive RBCs for insertion of specific Abs and fluorescent dyes. The additional modification by succinic anhydride and activation with EDC-NHS resulted in two- to seven-fold increase in fluorescence signals, indicating a much higher RBC loading capacity. These Ab- and fluorescent dye-functionalized RBCs have potentially high application in developing new biomedical diagnostic and in vitro assay techniques.