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XRD and ToF-SIMS study of intermetallic void formation in Cu-Sn micro-connects

: Ross, G.; Vuorinen, V.; Krause, M.; Reissaus, S.; Petzold, M.; Paulasto-Kröckel, M.


Microelectronics reliability 76-77 (2017), S.390-394
ISSN: 0026-2714
Fraunhofer IMWS ()

An identified reliability challenge of significant importance to Cu–Sn bonding for 3D integration is Cu–Sn intermetallic void formation. Voids, often referred to as Kirkendall voids, form within the inter-diffusional zone between Cu and Sn, more specifically within the intermetallic compound Cu3Sn. The root-cause(s) of void formation is not well understood, therefore this study is designed to understand under what conditions voids form. The two main hypotheses for the root-causes of void formation are (i) the imbalance of diffusion rates between Cu and Sn during the formation of Cu–Sn intermetallic compounds and the resulting residual stresses and (ii) the co-deposition of impurities during Cu electroplating to void formation. Therefore, an ex- and in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) study is used to probe the material state as a function of thermal annealing, and a time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) study is used to detect impurities co-deposited during Cu electroplating and to understand the effects of thermal annealing on the impurities' kinetic behaviour.