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A carcinogenic trigger to study the function of tumor suppressor genes in Schmidtea mediterranea

: Roten, Andromeda van; Abo-Zeid Barakat, Amal Zohir; Wouters, Annelies; Tran, Anh Thao; Mouton, Stijn; Noben, Jean-Paul; Gentile, Luca; Smeets, Karen

Volltext urn:nbn:de:0011-n-5000220 (8.3 MByte PDF)
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Erstellt am: 12.7.2018

Disease models & mechanisms : DMM 11 (2018), Nr.9, Art. dmm032573, 14 S.
ISSN: 1754-8411 (Print)
ISSN: 1754-8403 (Online)
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IBMT ()

Planarians have been long known for their regenerative ability, which hinges on pluripotency. Recently, however, the planarian model has been successfully established for routine toxicological screens aimed to assess over-proliferation, mutagenicity and tumorigenesis. In this study, we focused on planarian tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and their role during chemically-induced carcinogenic stress in Schmidtea mediterranea. Combining in silico and proteomic screens to the exposure to human carcinogen type 1A agent cadmium (Cd), we showed that many TSGs have a function in stem cells and that, in general, the exposure to Cd accelerated the onset and increased the severity of the observed phenotype. This suggested that the interaction between environmental and genetic factors plays an important role in tumor development in S. mediterranea. Therefore, we further focused on the synergistic effects of Cd exposure and p53 KD at the cellular and molecular levels. Cadmium also produced a specific proteomic landscape in homeostatic animals, with 172 proteins differentially expressed, 43 of which were downregulated. Several of these proteins have tumor suppressor function in human and other animals, namely Wilms Tumor 1 Associated Protein (WT1), Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90), Glioma Pathogenesis Related Protein 1 (GLIPR1) and planarian Matrix Metalloproteinase B (Smed-MMPB). Both Glipr1 and MmpB KD produced large outgrowths, epidermal lesions and epidermal blisters. The epidermal blisters that formed in consequence of Smed-MmpB KD were populated by smedwi1+ cells, many of which were actively proliferating, while large outgrowths contained ectopically differentiated structures, like photoreceptors, nervous tissue and a small pharynx. In conclusion, Smed-MmpB is a planarian tumor suppressor gene that prevents stem cell proliferation and differentiation outside the proper milieu.