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The oral microbiome - the relevant reservoir for acute pediatric appendicitis?

: Blod, Carlotta; Schlichting, Nadine; Schülin, Sara; Suttkus, Anne; Peukert, Nicole; Stîngu, Cǎtǎlina S.; Hirsch, Christian; Elger, Wieland; Lacher, Martin; Bühligen, Ulf; Mayer, Steffi


International journal of colorectal disease 33 (2018), Nr.2, S.209-218
ISSN: 0179-1958
ISSN: 1432-1262
Fraunhofer IZI ()
appendix; microbiome; oral bacteria; Peptostreptococcus stomatis; sequencing

Purpose: The oral microbiome has been related to numerous extra oral diseases. Recent studies detected a high abundance of oral bacteria in inflamed appendices in pediatric patients. To elucidate the role of oral bacteria in acute pediatric appendicitis, we studied the oral and appendiceal microbiome of affected children compared to healthy controls.
Methods: Between January and June 2015, 21 children undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis and 28 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled in the study. All individuals underwent thorough dental examination and laboratory for inflammatory parameters. Samples of inflamed appendices and the gingival sulcus were taken for 16S rDNA sequencing. RT-qPCR of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, and Eikenella corrodens was performed and their viability was tested under acidic conditions to mimic gastric transfer.
Results: In phlegmonous appendices, Bacteroidetes and Porphyromonas were discovered as dominant phylum and genus. In sulcus samples, Firmicutes and Streptococcus were detected predominantly. P. stomatis, E. corrodens, and F. nucleatum were identified in each group. Viable amounts of P. stomatis were increased in sulci of children with acute appendicitis compared to sulci of healthy controls. In inflamed appendices, viable amounts of E. corrodens and F. nucleatum were decreased compared to sulci of children with appendicitis. Postprandial viability could be demonstrated for all tested bacteria.
Conclusion: In children with acute appendicitis, we identified several oral bacterial pathogens. Based on postprandial viability of selected species, a viable migration from the oral cavity through the stomach to the appendix seems possible. Thus, the oral cavity could be a relevant reservoir for acute appendicitis.