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High-resolution wide-swath SAR

: Sikaneta, Ishuwa; Cerutti-Maori, Delphine

Klemm, Richard; Nickel, Ulrich; Gierull, Christoph; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Griffiths, Hugh; Koch, Wolfgang:
Novel radar techniques and applications. Vol.1: Real aperture array radar, imaging radar, and passive and multistatic radar
Herts: SciTech Publishing, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-61353-225-6
ISBN: 978-1-61353-227-0
ISBN: 978-1-61353-229-4
ISBN: 978-1-61353-226-3
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer FHR ()

This chapter presents the principle of high-resolution wide-swath synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a means for imaging wide areas at high resolution. The material covers the limitations of achieving wide-swath and high-resolution with a traditional SAR, the basic idea of using a multi-aperture SAR to overcome this limitation and current implementations where multi-aperture (or multiple antenna) systems collect data in an ideal configuration. Overviews of approaches to processing data collected in nonideal configurations, such as when the data are collected with non-uniform sampling and/or when they are collected with a squinted system, are then introduced. Armed with an overview, the chapter introduces the theory of multi-aperture SAR processing with the objective of generalizing the concept of high-resolution wide-swath to higher resolution, wider-swath SAR. This enables application of the added degrees of freedom to other modes such as spotlight and high-resolution stripmap. In order to present the theory and the generalizations, and in consideration of possible future systems, the theory is derived in the wavenumber domain for wideband and/or widebeam, space-based systems with special cases for narrowband systems presented as appropriate. In contrast to much of the current literature, the theory views the antenna patterns as the key provider of the additional degrees of freedom and proposes to utilize other pattern characteristics in addition to the phase-centre separation to improve imaging. For this reason, special care is taken in developing the antenna pattern dependence in the signal model. The approach for signal reconstruction focuses, mainly, on the minimum mean-square error method as it is quite general and includes, as special cases, the well-known projection approach as well as the space-time adaptive processing (STAP) approach. Further, it inherently, simultaneously improves the geometrical and radiometrical resolution due to favourable weighting by the antenna pattern and a less aggressive ambiguity prescription as compared to other techniques. The approach also naturally incorporates other more generalized system configurations where, for instance, the antenna patterns have, not only different phase-centres, but also different shapes or different pointing directions. As an added feature, the presented method is robust against matrix inversion problems which can render the projection approach intractable. The special case of a phased-array multi-aperture system is presented.