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Can solid-phase microextraction replace solvent extraction for water analysis in fish bioconcentration studies with highly hydrophobic organic chemicals?

: Böhm, L.; Düring, R.-A.; Bruckert, H.-J.; Schlechtriem, C.

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Environmental toxicology and chemistry 36 (2017), Nr.11, S.2887-2894
ISSN: 0730-7268
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IME ()

With the aim to refine water analysis in fish bioconcentration studies, automated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as an alternative approach to conventional solvent extraction (liquid-liquid extraction [LLE]) for the extraction of 3 hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs; log KOW 5.5-7.8) from flow-through studies with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results showed that total concentrations extracted by SPME combined with internal standards and LLE are equal. The results further verify the possibility of simultaneous extraction of total and freely dissolved HOC concentrations by SPME. Freely dissolved concentrations allow the assessment of sorption and bioavailability of HOCs in bioconcentration studies and their potential impact on resulting bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Reduction in freely dissolved water concentrations can result in an underestimation of BCFs if they are calculated based on total water concentrations. For polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, a significant increase in BCF value was observed when freely dissolved concentrations were taken into account. However, log BCF values calculated based on freely dissolved concentrations did not correlate linearly with log KOW values above 5 to 6. This pointed to further influences besides a reduction in freely dissolved water concentrations by sorption to organic matter. The results can aid in assessment of the factors that influence bioconcentration systems and also give important information regarding the possible replacement of LLE by SPME for water analysis of highly HOCs in fish bioconcentration studies.