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Electrochemical Machining

: Schneider, Michael; Lohrengel, Manuel


Breitkopf, Cornelia (Hrsg.); Swider-Lyons, Karen (Hrsg.):
Springer handbook of electrochemical energy
Berlin: Springer, 2017
ISBN: 978-3-662-46656-8 (Print)
ISBN: 978-3-662-46657-5 (Online)
ISBN: 3-662-46656-2
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer IKTS ()

Electrochemical machining (ECM ) is an interesting and effective technique to shape metals by controlled anodic dissolution at extremely large current densities. The process avoids mechanical stress to workpiece and tool and yields shiny surfaces without further processes. The hardness of the material has no influence on the process. A compact overview with focus on the fundamental electrochemical interface kinetics is presented. After a brief introduction and a historical abstract, the electrochemical processes of anodic dissolution are discussed (Sect. 28.2). The common interface models developed over the last decades are introduced and compared. Experimental research concepts in lab-scale with partly unique equipment are described in Sect. 28.3 which focuses on the principles of interface process due to the extremely high current densities which are typical for ECM. Further information comes from in situ techniques to analyze the reaction products in the electrolyte and to monitor the anode surface. Extensively discussed is the formation of supersaturated product films close to the anode as a consequence of the high dissolution rate during the process. In Sect. 28.5 the authors propose a classification of the ECM processes based on the individual metal properties and structures of surface films (oxides) or the types of product complex ions. The interplay between anodic dissolution, metal microstructure and crystallography is intensively described in the second part of the chapter. Side reactions such as anodic oxygen evolution and the corresponding aspects of electronic conductivity are separately discussed in Sect. 28.7. Pulse ECM is an improved technique which means more complex kinetics of dissolution and is described in Sect. 28.8. The overview is completed by a discussion about difficult-to-machine materials such as titanium and carbides or nitrides (Sect. 28.9).