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Czochralski growth of silicon crystals

: Friedrich, J.; Ammon, W. von; Müller, G.


Rudolph, P.:
Handbook of crystal growth. Vol.2: Bulk crystal growth. Pt.A: Basic techniques : 2. ed.
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015
ISBN: 978-0-444-63306-4
ISBN: 978-0-444-63303-3
ISBN: 978-0-444-63332-3
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer IISB ()

The Czochralski technique is the most important crystal growth method for the industrial production of silicon with the highest perfection and fabrication rate of all crystal materials. This chapter describes the equipment and processing details of the highly developed Czochralski crystal pulling method (Cz). The importance of heat and species transport phenomena, including the role of convection in the Cz process and the properties of the silicon crystals, will be discussed. Furthermore, the incorporation of oxygen during the Cz process and its influence on mechanical and electronic crystal properties will be treated, as well as the generation and behavior of intrinsic point defects (silicon vacancies and interstitials) and aggregates (voids and stacking faults) with regard to fundamental Cz growth parameters. The article concludes with a consideration of economic aspects.