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Low temperature wafer level bonding using benzocyclobutene adhesive polymers

: Gallagher, M.; Kim, J.-U.; Huenger, E.; Zoschke, K.; Lopper, C.; Toepper, M.


IMAPS Additional Conferences (Device Packaging, HiTEC, HiTEN, & CICMT). Online journal (2012), Nr.DPC, 24 S.
ISSN: 2380-4491
Annual IMAPS International Conference and Exhibition on Device Packaging (DPC) <8, 2012, Scottsdale/Fountain Hills, Ariz.>
Fraunhofer IZM ()

3D stacking, one of the 3D integration technologies using through silicon vias (TSVs), is considered as a desirable 3D solution due to its cost effectiveness and matured technical background. For successful 3D stacking, precisely controlled bonding of the two substrates is necessary, so that various methods and materials have been developed over the last decade. Wafer bonding using polymeric adhesives has advantages. Surface roughness, which is critical in direct bonding and metal-to-metal bonding, is not a significant issue, as the organic adhesive can smooth out the unevenness during bonding process. Moreover, bonding of good quality can be obtained using relatively low bonding pressure and low bonding temperature. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymers have been commonly used as bonding adhesives due to their relatively low curing temperature (~250°C), very low water uptake (<0.2%), excellent planarizing capability, and good affinity to Cu metal lines. In this study, we pr esent wafer bonding with BCB at various conditions. In particular, bonding experiments are performed at low temperature range (180°C ~ 210°C), which results in partially cured state. In order to examine the effectiveness of the low temperature process, the mechanical (adhesion) strength and dimensional changes are measured after bonding, and compared with the values of the fully cured state. Two different BCB polymers, dry-etch type and photo type, are examined. Dry etch BCB is proper for full-area bonding, as it has low degree of cure and therefore less viscosity. Photo-BCB has advantages when a pattern (frame or via open) is to be structured on the film, since it is photoimageable (negative tone), and its moderate viscosity enables the film to sustain the patterns during the wafer bonding process. The effect of edge beads at the wafer rim area and the soft cure (before bonding) conditions on the bonding quality are also studied.