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Advances in the characterization of InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodetectors

: Wörl, A.; Daumer, V.; Hugger, T.; Kohn, N.; Luppold, W.; Müller, R.; Niemasz, J.; Rehm, R.; Rutz, F.; Schmidt, J.; Schmitz, J.; Stadelmann, T.; Wauro, M.


Huckridge, D.A. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications XIII : Edinburgh, United Kingdom, September 26, 2016
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2016 (Proceedings of SPIE 9987)
Paper 99870U, 7 S.
Conference "Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems - Technology and Applications" <13, 2016, Edinburgh>
Fraunhofer IAF ()
T2SL; Automated Dark Current Characterization; Automated Bulk and Surface Current Analysis; Capacitance-Voltage Analysis; Heterojunction InAs/GaSb Superlattices; infrared imager

This paper reports on advances in the electro-optical characterization of InAs/GaSb short-period superlattice infrared photodetectors with cut-off wavelengths in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared ranges. To facilitate in-line monitoring of the electro-optical device performance at different processing stages we have integrated a semi-automated cryogenic wafer prober in our process line. The prober is configured for measuring current-voltage characteristics of individual photodiodes at 77 K. We employ it to compile a spatial map of the dark current density of a superlattice sample with a cut-off wavelength around 5 um patterned into a regular array of 1760 quadratic mesa diodes with a pitch of 370 um and side lengths varying from 60 to 350 um. The different perimeter-to-area ratios make it possible to separate bulk current from sidewall current contributions. We find a sidewall contribution to the dark current of 1.2×10(-11) A/cm and a corrected bulk dark current density of 1.1×10-7 A/cm², both at 200 mV reverse bias voltage. An automated data analysis framework can extract bulk and sidewall current contributions for various subsets of the test device grid. With a suitable periodic arrangement of test diode sizes, the spatial distribution of the individual contributions can thus be investigated. We found a relatively homogeneous distribution of both bulk dark current density and sidewall current contribution across the sample. With the help of an improved capacitance voltage measurement setup developed to complement this technique a residual carrier concentration of 1.3×1015 cm(-3) is obtained. The work is motivated by research into high performance superlattice array sensors with demanding processing requirements. A novel long-wavelength infrared imager based on a heterojunction concept is presented as an example for this work. It achieves a noise equivalent temperature difference below 30 mK for realistic operating conditions.