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Stocks and flows of critical materials in batteries: Data collection and data uses

: Chancerel, Perrine; Maehlitz, Paul; Chanson, Claude; Binnemans, Peter; Huisman, Jaco; Guzman Brechu, Michelle; Rotter, Vera Susanne; Nissen, Nils F.; Lang, Klaus-Dieter


Fraunhofer-Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration -IZM-, Berlin; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers -IEEE-:
International Congress Electronics Goes Green 2016+, EGG 2016. Proceedings : Inventing shades of green; September 7-9, 2016, Berlin, Germany; Proceedings
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016
ISBN: 978-3-00-053763-9
ISBN: 978-1-5090-5208-0 (Print)
8 S.
International Congress Electronics Goes Green 2016+ (EGG) <2016, Berlin>
Fraunhofer IZM ()

ProSUM - Latin for "I am useful" - aims to provide better information on raw materials from secondary origins. It focuses in particular on the content of Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) from Batteries (BATT), Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), End of Life Vehicles (ELV) and Mining Wastes (MIN) available for processing in Europe. Batteries are considered a highly relevant waste group in the ProSUM project due to the high content of CRMs. The main goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the data collection and data analysis for batteries and the materials they contain. In the research, it was necessary to develop a classification of batteries and build the inventory of available data on their stocks and flows. It includes the amounts of batteries put on the market, the stocks in households and businesses, and the flows of waste batteries collected and treated. The stocks and flows of batteries are linked with the average composition of the different types of batteries to calculate the stocks and flows of (critical) resources. The results are shown for lithium-based and NiMH batteries in laptops and tablets. The data made available are specifically useful when addressing current issues related to the European legislation for waste batteries, e.g. the definition of adequate targets for collection and the monitoring of recycling efficiency.