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Enhancing fault emulation of transient faults by separating combinational and sequential fault propagation

: Nyberg, R.; Heyszl, J.; Heinz, D.; Sigl, G.


Association for Computing Machinery -ACM-; Association for Computing Machinery -ACM-, Special Interest Group on Design Automation -SIGDA-:
26th ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI, GLSVLSI 2016. Proceedings : May 18-20, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
New York: ACM, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-4503-4274-2
Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI (GLSVLSI) <26, 2016, Boston/Mass.>
Fraunhofer AISEC ()

We present a fault emulation environment capable of injecting single and multiple transient faults in sequential as well as combinational logic. It is used to perform fault injection campaigns during design verification of security circuits such as smart cards. In order to reduce the unacceptable hardware overhead of fault emulation for combinational faults, we split the problem of combinational fault modeling into two steps: 1) Fault injection in combinational cells and propagation into sequential cells, processed by a software approach, and 2) fast FPGA-based fault emulation of faults in sequential logic. We used the presented tool to emulate single and multiple faults in two different designs used for security applications. We analyzed how faults propagate from combinational to sequential logic, discuss the resulting consequences for developers of security circuits and fault analysis environments and derive performance optimizations. We demonstrate the performance of our method with varying tests and varying fault multiplicities. Interestingly, we found that the presented method outperforms conventional standalone FPGA-based approaches, while it requires 45% less logic elements on the FPGA.