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CD8+ Lymphocytes Are Required for Maintaining Viral Suppression in SIV-Infected Macaques Treated with Short-Term Antiretroviral Therapy

: Cartwright, E.K.; Spicer, L.; Smith, S.A.; Lee, D.; Fast, R.; Paganini, S.; Lawson, B.O.; Nega, M.; Easley, K.; Schmitz, J.E.; Bosinger, S.E.; Paiardini, M.; Chahroudi, A.; Vanderford, T.H.; Estes, J.D.; Lifson, J.D.; Derdeyn, C.A.; Silvestri, G.


Immunity 45 (2016), Nr.3, S.656-668
ISSN: 1074-7613
ISSN: 1097-4180
Fraunhofer IME ()

Infection with HIV persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and treatment interruption results in rapid viral rebound. Antibody-mediated CD8+ lymphocyte depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RMs) shows that these cells contribute to viral control in untreated animals. However, the contribution of CD8+ lymphocytes to maintaining viral suppression under ART remains unknown. Here, we have shown that in SIV-infected RMs treated with short-term (i.e., 8â32 week) ART, depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes resulted in increased plasma viremia in all animals and that repopulation of CD8+ T cells was associated with prompt reestablishment of virus control. Although the number of SIV-DNA-positive cells remained unchanged after CD8 depletion and reconstitution, the frequency of SIV-infected CD4+ T cells before depletion positively correlated with both the peak and area under the curve of viremia after depletion.