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Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing

: Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F.; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; Wever, Bart de; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian


Alternatives to animal experimentation : ALTEX 33 (2016), Nr.1, S.55-67
ISSN: 1868-596X
ISSN: 0946-7785
Fraunhofer IGB ()
eye irritation; draize eye test; OECD guideline; corneal equivalent

In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test is criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation. This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed with regard to possible limitations and status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be suited to predict all GHS categories.