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Diamond-based supercapacitors: Realization and properties

: Gao, F.; Nebel, C.E.


ACS applied materials & interfaces 8 (2016), Nr.42, S.28244-28254
ISSN: 1944-8244
ISSN: 0013-936X
ISSN: 1944-8252
Fraunhofer IAF ()
boron-doped diamond; supercapacitor; surface enlargement; templated-growth; potential window

In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a topdown plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nano-structuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm(-2) or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and freestanding porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm(-2)" range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm(-2) per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g(-1)). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 105 W kg(-1). In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.