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Optoelectronic properties of Black-Silicon generated through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing for crystalline silicon solar cells

: Hirsch, J.; Gaudig, M.; Bernhard, N.; Lausch, D.


Applied surface science 374 (2016), S.252-256
ISSN: 0169-4332
European Materials Research Society (Spring Meeting) <2015, Lille>
Symposium CC "Laser and Plasma Processing for Advanced Applications in Material Science" <2015, Lille>
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Konferenzbeitrag
Fraunhofer CSP ()

The optoelectronic properties of maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated black silicon through SF6 and O-2 are analyzed by using reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quasi steady state photoconductivity (QSSPC). The results are discussed and compared to capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and industrial standard wet chemical textures. The ICP process forms parabolic like surface structures in a scale of 500 nm. This surface structure reduces the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8%. Additionally, the ICP texture shows a weak increase of the hemispherical reflection under tilted angles of incidence up to 60. Furthermore, we report that the ICP process is independent of the crystal orientation and the surface roughness. This allows the texturing of monocrystalline, multicrystalline and kerf-less wafers using the same parameter set. The ICP generation of black silicon does not apply a self-bias on the silicon sample. Therefore, the silicon sample is exposed to a reduced ion bombardment, which reduces the plasma induced surface damage. This leads to an enhancement of the effective charge carrier lifetime up to 2.5 ms at 10(15) cm(-3) minority carrier density (MCD) after an atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Al2O3. Since excellent etch results were obtained already after 4 min process time, we conclude that the ICP generation of black silicon is a promising technique to substitute the industrial state of the art wet chemical textures in the solar cell mass production.