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Probing magnetism of nanosized single-domain particle- systems

: Hesse, J.; Pütter, S.; Michele, O.; Bremers, H.; Hupe, O.; Hartung, H.; Eichler, M.


Physica status solidi. A 189 (2002), Nr.2, S.481-494
ISSN: 0031-8965
ISSN: 1862-6300
ISSN: 1521-396X
ISSN: 1862-6319
Fraunhofer IST ()

Magnetization measurements are the "classic" experimental method to characterize systems of single domain magnetic particles. We consider such particles fixed in space so that the orientation of the magnetization vector of each particle can be influenced by an external magnetic field with respect to characteristic particle directions, i.e. easy directions in the case of anisotropy energy. The aim of this contribution is directed towards experimentalists. We will enhance the well-known idea of the "preparation" of different low temperature magnetic states (LTMS), introduce the quasi-paramagnetic state which can be reached by the PHFC (positive high field cooling) process, briefly discuss the NHFC (negative high field cooling) and other ways to reach the LTMS. Additionally, our aim is to persuade researchers to consider the susceptibility rather than the magnetization. The most interesting topic is here the pronounced susceptibility maximum which appears in a system of small single domain particles prepared in a LTMS by a PHFC process when measuring in a constant external field versus temperature. We use the susceptibility for an ideal super-paramagnet as a limiting case and consider step by step what are the influences on the susceptibility if the real particle systems exhibit magnetic anisotropy energy, particle-particle interactions and last but not least a particle size distribution.