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Precipitation reactions in age-hardenable alloys during laser additive manufacturing

 
: Jägle, E.A.; Sheng, Z.; Wu, L.; Lu, L.; Risse, J.; Weisheit, A.; Raabe, D.

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JOM. The journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 68 (2016), Nr.3, S.943-949
ISSN: 0148-6608
ISSN: 1047-4838
ISSN: 1543-1851
Englisch
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Fraunhofer ILT ()

Abstract
We describe and study the thermal profiles experienced by various age-hardenable alloys during laser additive manufacturing (LAM), employing two different manufacturing techniques: selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Using scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we reveal at which stages during the manufacturing process desired and undesired precipitation reactions can occur in age-hardenable alloys. Using examples from a maraging steel, a nickel-base superalloy and a scandium-containing aluminium alloy, we demonstrate that precipitation can already occur during the production of the powders used as starting material, during the deposition of material (i.e. during solidification and subsequent cooling), during the intrinsic heat treatment effected by LAM (i.e. in the heat affected zones) and, naturally, during an ageing post-heat treatment. These examples demonstrate the importance of understanding and controlling the thermal profile during the entire additive manufacturing cycle of age-hardenable materials including powder synthesis.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/dokumente/N-374972.html