Hier finden Sie wissenschaftliche Publikationen aus den Fraunhofer-Instituten.

Silicon based single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) technology for low-light and high-speed applications

: Durini, Daniel; Paschen, Uwe; Schwinger, Alexander; Spickermann, Andreas


Nabet, Bahram (Hrsg.):
Photodetectors. Materials, devices and applications
Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, 2016 (Woodhead publishing series in eletronic and optical materials 84)
ISBN: 978-1-78242-445-1 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-78242-468-0 (Online)
ISBN: 1-78242-445-8
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer IMS ()
CMOS imaging; single-photon counting; single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD); Geiger avalanche photodiode (GAPD); silicon photomultiplier (SiPM); digital photon counting (DPC); photomultiplier tube (PMT); multichannel plate (MCP); image intensifier (I2); avalanche processes in silicon; time and spatial resolution; time-of-flight ranging

This chapter describes the functional principles of single-photon counting in silicon achieved through single-photon counting avalanche diode (SPAD) technology. It explains the different readout modes of single SPADs on the one side, and of arrays of SPADs forming silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) with an analog output, SiPMs with a digital output or SPAD arrays that can be read out in form of frames that form SPAD-imagers, on the other. This silicon based technology is compared to traditionally used photomultiplier tube, multichannel plate, or image intensifier technologies in applications requiring near single-photon counting and time responses in nanosecond or sub-nanosecond regions. This chapter discusses the fabrication issues of SPAD devices as well as figures of merit used for their characterization. Finally, the chapter explains how SPAD arrays are used in time-of-flight based ranging and/or 3D imaging applications.