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Automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with HPLC for the determination of N-nitrosamines in cell cultures

: Mullett, W.M.; Levsen, K.; Borlak, J.; Wu, J.C.; Pawliszyn, J.


Analytical chemistry 74 (2002), Nr.7, S.1695-1701
ISSN: 0003-2700
ISSN: 1520-6882
Fraunhofer ITEM ()

An automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) HPLC analysis method for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and several metabolites has been developed. NNK is one of the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), which has been linked to cancers associated with the use of or exposure to tobacco products. In-tube SPME is an on-line extraction technique in which analytes are extracted and concentrated from the sample directly into a coated capillary by repeated draw/eject steps. In this study, a tailor-made polypyrrole (PPY)-coated capillary and several commercially available capillaries (capillary GC columns) were used to evaluate their extraction efficiencies for NNK and several metabolites in cell cultures. Compared with commercial capillaries that were currently used for in-tube SPME, the PPY-coated capillary showed better extraction efficiency for all of the compounds studied. After optimization of the extraction conditions, NNK and five metabolite compounds were analyzed in spiked cell cultures, confirming the applicability of the developed method. Excellent linearity was observed for all compounds (av R2 = 0.9942) and detection limits that ranged from 20 to 250 ng/mL. The average within-day and between day variations (% RSD) were 2.9 and 3.6%, respectively. This automated extraction and analysis method simplified the determination of the TSNA, requiring a total sample analysis time of only ~30 min.