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"Black" TiO2 nanotubes formed by high-energy proton implantation show noble-metal-co-catalyst free photocatalytic H-2-evolution

: Liu, N.; Haublein, V.; Zhou, X.M.; Venkatesan, U.; Hartmann, M.; Mackovic, M.; Nakajima, T.; Spiecker, E.; Osvet, A.; Frey, L.; Schmuki, P.


Nano Letters 15 (2015), Nr.10, S.6815-6820
ISSN: 1530-6984
ISSN: 1530-6992
Fraunhofer IISB ()

We apply high-energy proton ion-implantation to modify TiO2 nanotubes selectively at their tops. In the proton-implanted region, we observe the creation of intrinsic cocatalytic centers for photocatalytic H-2-evolution. We find proton implantation to induce specific defects and a characteristic modification of the electronic properties not only in nanotubes but also on anatase single crystal (001) surfaces. Nevertheless, for TiO2 nanotubes a strong synergetic effect between implanted region (catalyst) and implant-free tube segment (absorber) can be obtained.