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Assessment of target detection limits in hyperspectral data

: Gross, W.; Boehler, J.; Schilling, H.; Middelmann, W.; Weyermann, J.; Wellig, P.; Oechslin, R.; Kneubuehler, M.


Stein, K.U. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Target and Background Signatures : 23 - 24 September 2015, Toulouse, France
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2015 (Proceedings of SPIE 9653)
ISBN: 9781628418637
Paper 96530J, 10 S.
Conference "Target and Background Signatures" <2015, Toulouse>
Fraunhofer IOSB ()
INT; hyperspectral; detection limit; target to background ratio; subpixel classification; synthetic data

Hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used for civil and military applications to detect and classify target objects that cannot be reliably separated using broadband sensors. The comparably low spatial resolution is compensated by the fact that small targets, even below image resolution, can still be classified. The goal of this paper is to determine the target size to spatial resolution ratio for successful classification of different target and background materials. Airborne hyperspectral data is used to simulate data with known mixture ratios and to estimate the detection threshold for given false alarm rates. The data was collected in July 2014 over Greding, Germany, using airborne aisaEAGLE and aisaHAWK hyperspectral sensors. On the ground, various target materials were placed on natural background. The targets were four quadratic molton patches with an edge length of 7 meters in the colors black, white, grey and green. Also, two different types of polyethylene (camouflage nets) with an edge length of approximately 5.5 meters were deployed. Synthetic data is generated from the original data using spectral mixtures. Target signatures are linearly combined with different background materials in specific ratios. The simulated mixtures are appended to the original data and the target areas are removed for evaluation. Commonly used classification algorithms, e.g. Matched Filtering, Adaptive Cosine Estimator are used to determine the detection limit. Fixed false alarm rates are employed to find and analyze certain regions where false alarms usually occur first. A combination of 18 targets and 12 backgrounds is analyzed for three VNIR and two SWIR data sets of the same area.