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Lanthanide tri-fluorides: A survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV - VUV - spectral range

: Uhlig, H.; Thielsch, R.; Heber, J.; Kaiser, N.


Amra,C.; Kaiser, N.; Macleod, H.A. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Advances in Optical Thin Films II : SPIE Conference on Optical Systems Design, 12-16 September 2005, Jena, Germany
Bellingham/Wash.: SPIE, 2005 (SPIE Proceedings Series 5963)
ISBN: 0-8194-5981-X
Conference on Optical Systems Design <2005, Jena, Germany>
Fraunhofer IPMS ()
Fraunhofer IOF ()
thin film; Fluoride; DUV; VUV

The present candidates for low loss dielectric optical coatings at VUV excimer laser wavelengths are fluorides. Within this group, only one material - namely lanthanum fluoride - is used almost exclusively as high index film material. In search of additional high index film materials for use in VUV we investigated a broader spectrum of lanthanide trifluorides since little is known about their properties and the advantages or disadvantages with regards of their use in DUV- and VUV – optical stacks. Fluorides of lanthanum, neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and also yttrium were evaporated thermally. Precision VUV-measurement were initiated to give an overview of the ranges of UV-transparency up to the absorption edges and to determine the optical indices of these coating materials. Supplementary, also stress measurements, atomic force microscopy and XRD measurements were performed to scrutinize the properties of the films.