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Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet

: Zürch, M.; Rothhardt, J.; Hädrich, S.; Demmler, S.; Krebs, M.; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Guggenmos, A.; Kleineberg, U.; Spielmann, C.

Volltext ()

Scientific Reports 4 (2014), Art. 7356, 5 S.
ISSN: 2045-2322
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IOF ()
microscopy; holographyer-pulses; femtosecond; amplifiers; polarization; efficiency; threshold

Coherent Diffraction Imaging is a technique to study matter with nanometer-scale spatial resolution based on coherent illumination of the sample with hard X-ray, soft X-ray or extreme ultraviolet light delivered from synchrotrons or more recently X-ray Free-Electron Lasers. This robust technique simultaneously allows quantitative amplitude and phase contrast imaging. Laser-driven high harmonic generation XUV-sources allow table-top realizations. However, the low conversion efficiency of lab-based sources imposes either a large scale laser system or long exposure times, preventing many applications. Here we present a lensless imaging experiment combining a high numerical aperture (NA=0.8) setup with a high average power fibre laser driven high harmonic source. The high flux and narrow-band harmonic line at 33.2 nm enables either sub-wavelength spatial resolution close to the Abbe limit (Delta r=0.8 lambda) for long exposure time, or sub-70 nm imaging in less than one second. The unprecedented high spatial resolution, compactness of the setup together with the real-time capability paves the way for a plethora of applications in fundamental and life sciences.