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In-situ observations of glass frit related effects during the front side paste contact formation

: Eberstein, Markus; Schmidt, Ulrike; Körner, Stefan; Reinhardt, Kathrin; Jurk, Robert; Partsch, Uwe


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers -IEEE-:
40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2014 : Denver, Colorado, 08.06.2014-13.06.2014
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-4799-4398-2
ISBN: 978-1-4799-4397-5
Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) <40, 2014, Denver/Colo.>
Fraunhofer IKTS ()
contact formation; front side pastes; glass frit; photovoltaic cells

A large number of solar cells is metallized by printing and firing glass containing silver pastes. However, the contact formation is not fully understood so far. There is still a lack of understanding the role of the glass phase in the complex contact formation scenario because single effects could not been seperatly observed and evaluated up to now. To overcome this, an in-situ method to observe the contact formation via a contact resistance measurement was introduced. A special measuring device was applied to characterize two typical front side pastes, featuring a PbO-containing as well as a PbO-free glass frit during firing. The viscosity of the paste glass showed decisive influence for the etching of the anti-reflection coating (ARC). The ARC was opened immediately after entering the softening range of the respective glass, regardless of large differences in glass chemistry. Furthermore, the viscosity-temperature behaviour of the paste glass determines the intensity of the redox-reaction and related silver precipitation at the interface, which takes part between ARC opening and glass resolidification. The cooling slope was confirmed to have decisive influence on the final interface conductivity, because a crucial part of silver colloids can be formed here.