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Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium Green's functions

: Lindskog, M.; Wolf, J.M.; Trinite, V.; Liverini, V.; Faist, J.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M.; Aidam, R.; Ostendorf, R.; Wacker, A.


Applied Physics Letters 105 (2014), Nr.10, Art. 103106, 5 S.
ISSN: 0003-6951 (Print)
ISSN: 1077-3118
ISSN: 1931-9401 (online)
Fraunhofer IAF ()

We study the operation of an 8.5 µm quantum cascade laser based on GaInAs/AlInAs lattice matched to InP using three different simulation models based on density matrix (DM) and nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formulations. The latter advanced scheme serves as a validation for the simpler DM schemes and, at the same time, provides additional insight, such as the temperatures of the sub-band carrier distributions. We find that for the particular quantum cascade laser studied here, the behavior is well described by simple quantum mechanical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule. As a consequence, the DM model, which includes second order currents, agrees well with the NEGF results. Both these simulations are in accordance with previously reported data and a second regrown device.