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Development of carbon nanotube and graphite filled polyphenylene sulfide based bipolar plates for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

: Caglar, B.; Fischer, P.; Kauranen, P.; Karttunen, M.; Elsner, P.


Journal of power sources 256 (2014), S.88-95
ISSN: 0378-7753
Fraunhofer ICT ()

In this study, synthetic graphite and carbon nanotube (CNT) filled polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) based bipolar plates are produced by using co-rotating twin-screw extruder and injection molding. Graphite is the main conductive filler and CNTs are used as bridging filler between graphite particles. To improve the dispersion of the fillers and the flow behavior of the composite, titanate coupling agent (KR-TTS) is used. The concentration effect of CNTs and coupling agent on the properties of bipolar plates are examined. At 72.5 wt.% total conductive filler concentration, by addition of 2.5 wt.% CNT and 3 wt.% KR-TTS; through-plane and in-plane electrical conductivities increase from 1.42 S cm-1 to 20 S cm-1 and 6.4 S cm-1 to 57.3 S cm-1 respectively compared to sample without CNTs and additive. Extruder torque value and apparent viscosity of samples decrease significantly with coupling agent and as a result; the flow behavior is positively affected. Flexural strength is imp roved 15% by addition of 1.25 wt.% CNT. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis shows nucleating effect of conductive fillers on PPS matrix. Corrosion measurements, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests are performed to examine the electrochemical stability and the performance of produced bipolar plates in all-vanadium redox flow battery.