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Scanning acoustic gigahertz microscopy for metrology applications in three-dimensional integration technologies

: Brand, S.; Lapadatu, A.; Djuric, T.; Czurratis, P.; Schischka, J.; Petzold, M.


Journal of micro/nanolithography, MEMS and MOEMS 13 (2014), Nr.1, Art. 011207, 10 S.
ISSN: 1537-1646
ISSN: 1932-5150
ISSN: 1932-5134
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung BMBF
Fraunhofer IWM ( IMWS) ()

Current trends in microelectronics focus on three-dimensionally integrating different components to allow for increasing density and functionality of integrated systems. Concepts pursued involve vertical stacking and interconnecting technologies that employ micro bumping, wafer bonding, and through silicon vias (TSVs). Both the increasing complexity and the miniaturization of key elements in three-dimensional (3-D) components lead to new requirements on inspection and metrology tools and techniques as well as for failure analysis methodologies. For metrology and quality assessment in particular, methods operating nondestructively are of major importance. Scanning acoustic microscopy has the ability of illuminating optically opaque materials and, thus, allowing the assessment and imaging of internal structures. Conventional scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) equipment can be applied to analyze the quality of wafer-bonded interfaces in 3-D integration but may reach its limitations when structures shrink in size and gain complexity. A new concept of acoustic inspection in the giga-hertz (GHz) frequency band is explored for its applicability to 3-D integration technologies. Extending the acoustic inspection frequency allows for lateral resolutions in the 1-mu m range and also enables the inspection of microbumps and TSVs in addition to wafer bonded interfaces, which exceed the applicability of conventional SAM. Three case studies are presented here ranging from conventional SAM on a full wafer scale to acoustic GHz microscopy on thin films and TSVs.