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Nephrotoxicity of organic solvents

Biomarkers for early detection
: Voß, J.U.; Roller, M.; Brinkmann, E.; Mangelsdorf, I.


International archives of occupational and environmental health 78 (2005), Nr.6, S.475-485
ISSN: 0340-0131
Fraunhofer ITEM ()
Albumin; Biomarkers; Nephrotoxicity; Occupational exposure; Organic solvents

Objectives: Evidence for a relationship between chronic kidney diseases or progression of already existing diseases (glomerulonephritides) and occupational solvent exposure has been found in case reports, in case-control studies and also in cross-sectional studies. An analysis of the available literature was performed with respect to markers measured in cross-sectional studies that might be useful for an early detection of solvent-induced effects on the kidney. Methods: The relevant cross-sectional studies were evaluated and the following markers were analyzed with respect to their suitability as biomarker for renal damage: total protein, albumin, transferrin, IgG, beta(2)-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase, alanine aminopeptidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, leucin aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, Tamm-Horsfall protein and laminin fragments in urine as well as E-selectin, laminin and anti-laminin antibodies and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in serum. Results: An increased albumin excretion was observed more frequently in groups of workers exposed to various solvents (like toluene, styrene, aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures, tetrachloroethene, mixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons) than in controls. No clear pattern emerged for the other markers. Conclusions: The determination of albumin excretion in the urine appears to be a useful parameter for monitoring solvent-exposed workers.