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Properties of low-substituted cationic starch derivatives prepared by different derivatisation processes

: Radosta, S.; Vorwerg, W.; Ebert, A.; Begli, A.H.; Grülc, D.; Wastyn, M.


Starch = Stärke 56 (2004), Nr.7, S.277-287
ISSN: 0038-9056
Fraunhofer IAP ()

Cationic starch ethers prepared by the chemical reaction of starch with a quaternary ammonium reagent are commercially important derivatives. Cationic potato starch derivatives were produced under pilot-scale conditions, employing four different principles. Wet cationisation was carried out by the slurry and paste processes, in which the cationic reagent and catalyst are added to the starch. Besides being prepared by these more commonly used processes, cationic starches were also produced by dry cationisation and by adding the cationic reagent during extrusion of starch. The cationic reagent used was 2,3epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride. Derivatives with three graded degrees of substitution (DS) between 0.03 and 0.12 were prepared by each process. The physical properties of the derivatives were analysed by the following methods: polarised light microscopy, X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solubility and swelling behaviour, and High-Performance Size-Exclusion Chromatography-Multiangle Laser Light Scattering (HPSEC-MALLS). The degree of substitution was determined by high resolution C-13-NMR spectroscopy after hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid. The properties of the cationic starch derivatives were highly dependent on the derivatisation method. The granular structure of the starch was not visibly affected by the slurry process. Products from the semi-dry reaction showed some granular damage, which was particularly evident after suspension of the granules in water. In the paste and extrusion processes, the starch granules were completely destroyed. Swelling temperatures and enthalpies can be determined only for starch derivatives that still retain a granular structure. As a result, samples from the paste and extrusion reactions exhibited no swelling endotherm in DSC. The samples from the slurry process showed a shift in the swelling temperature range towards lower temperature and a decrease in swelling enthalpy both as compared to native potato starch and also with increasing DS. Similar behaviour was found for the samples from the semi-dry process. The swelling temperature region was comparable to that of the slurry samples for the same DS but the swelling enthalpy was distinctly lower, indicating that the granular structure of the starch was altered far more by the semi-dry than the slurry process. Swelling in excess water and solubility were affected primarily by the cationisation process, while the influence of DS was of minor importance. The extrusion products had pronounced cold-water solubility, the semi-dry products showed increasing told-water solubility with increasing DS, the paste products were highly swollen in cold water and the slurry products were insoluble in cold water. All products were soluble in hot water but the state of dissolution was different. The molar mass distributions of the samples were determined after dissolution by pressure cooking. The different derivatisation methods resulted in characteristic molar mass distributions. The average molar mass decreased in the order slurry, semi-dry-, paste and extrusion process.