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Functionally graded materials with a soft surface for improved indentation resistance

Layout and corresponding design principles
: Ziegler, T.; Kraft T.

Preprint urn:nbn:de:0011-n-2872663 (505 KByte PDF)
MD5 Fingerprint: c611947d6449976e1d01491d7487dac2
Erstellt am: 5.12.2014

Computational materials science 86 (2014), S.88-92
ISSN: 0927-0256
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IWM ()
smart materials; mechanical properties; finite element analysis; FEA; functionally graded material; FGM

We report the finding of an optimal layout of functionally graded materials (FGM) towards indentation resistance. This optimum is characterized by a minimum in tensile surface stresses that can lead to a belated onset of cracking compared to homogeneous materials of uniform stiffness. The parameters influencing the tensile surface stresses in a FGM consisting of a soft surface layer, a stiff base material and a graded region between them have been investigated by finite element analysis and an optimum is reported for the first time. The results in general units can be used to design the gradient in any FGM from plastics to ceramics to result in low tensile surface stresses for a given load.