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Structural evolution of nanopores and cracks as fundamental constituents of ultrashort pulse-induced nanogratings

: Zimmermann, Felix; Plech, Anton; Richter, Sören; Döring, Sven; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan


Applied physics. A 114 (2014), Nr.1, S.75-79
ISSN: 0340-3793
ISSN: 0721-7250
ISSN: 0947-8396 (Print)
ISSN: 1432-0630 (Online)
Fraunhofer IOF ()

We present an extensive study of the underlying structure of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings in fused silica. To explore the evolution of the three-dimensional structure of the nanopores and cracks, of which the nanogratings consist, we performed small angle X-ray scattering measurements as well as focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that cracks with dimensions of (280 × 25 × 380) nm 3 and nanopores with typical diameters of (30 × 25 × 75) nm 3 are formed independent of various illumination parameters. With increasing number of laser pulses the smaller pores fuse to larger structures. Furthermore, the data suggest a cross-sectional change of the pores from cuboidal to ellipsoidal.