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Adaptive control concept for shape memory alloy actuators

Adaptives Regelungskonzept für Formgedächtnisaktoren in antagonistischer Anordnung
: Pagel, Kenny; Zorn, Wolfgang; Bucht, Andre; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Kunze, Holger


American Society of Mechanical Engineers -ASME-:
ASME Conference on Smart Materials Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems 2013. Proceedings. Vol.1: Development and characterization of multifunctional materials, modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems, integrated system design and implementation : September 16-18, 2013, Snowbird, Utah, USA
New York/NY.: ASME, 2014
ISBN: 978-0-7918-5603-1
Paper V001T03A014, 8 S.
Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS) <2013, Snowbird/Utah>
Fraunhofer IWU ()
shape memory alloy actuator; adaptive control; antagonistic arrangement; wire against spring; position control

Machine tools for small work pieces are characterized by an extensive disproportion between workspace and cross section. This is mainly caused by limitations in the miniaturization of drives and guidance elements. Due to their high specific workloads and relatively small spatial requirements, Thermal Shape-Memory-Alloys (SMA) possesses an outstanding potential to serve as miniaturized positioning devices in small machines. Antagonistically arranged SMA actuators are especially feasible to fulfill these requirements.
This paper describes an adaptive closed loop control concept for actuators based on antagonistic-pair arrangements of electrically-heated SMA elements. Due to their nonlinear stress-strain behavior such actuators are characterized by strain dependent load conditions at the activated SMA element. Consequently the actuator dynamic depends on its position. Hence an adaptive closed loop control concept to ensure a constant actuator dynamic over the entire stroke has to be developed. The approach is based on the model-based determination of the composition-temperature characteristics using the measured position and the electrical resistance of the SMA Element. A numerical model of an antagonistic SMA wire arrangement is used to develop the adaptive control theoretically. An SMA wire test bench is designed to investigate the proof of the adaptive approach experimentally. Measurements of a conventional PID control are further compared to the achieved results of the new concept.