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R&D and innovation policy - preconditions for making steps towards a 2000 Watt/Cap society

: Jochem, E.


Energy and Environment 15 (2004), Nr.2, S.283-296
ISSN: 0958-305X
Fraunhofer ISI ()
energy and material efficiency; material substitution; entrepreneurial innovation; process substitution; 2000 W Per Capita Society; R&D identification; back-casting; R&D and innovation system

The paper reports on the methodology and results of several studies on the longterm efficiency potentials in the two energy transformation steps from primary energy to final and useful energy and, more importantly, from useful energy to energy services. The examination of these potentials considers the lifetimes and periods of refurbishment of manufactured artefacts: buildings and infrastructure that will save or waste energy in 2050 that are being built or restored today. The paper emphasises the enormous size of energy conservation potentials achievable not only by reducing energy losses but also by decreasing the specific activity levels for several energy services through improved material efficiency and intensified use of products, plants, and vehicles. It also reports on major definitive conclusions on R&D needs and challenges to R&D-policies as well as immediate policy action in OECD-countries in order to realise the vision of reducing primary energy use per capita by two thirds in industrialised countries within the next five decades