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In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biodegradable, open-porous scaffolds made of sintered magnesium W4 short fibres

: Bobe, K.; Willbold, E.; Morgenthal, I.; Andersen, O.; Studnitzky, T.; Nellesen, J.; Tillmann, W.; Vogt, C.; Vano, K.; Witte, F.


Acta biomaterialia 9 (2013), Nr.10, S.8611-8623
ISSN: 1742-7061
ISSN: 1878-7568
Fraunhofer IFAM, Institutsteil Pulvermetallurgie und Verbundwerkstoffe Dresden ()

A cytocompatible and biocompatible, degradable, open-porous, mechanically adaptable metal scaffold made of magnesium alloy W4 melt-extracted short fibres was fabricated by liquid phase sintering. Cylindrical samples (3 × 5 mm) of sintered W4 short fibres were evaluated under in vitro (L929, HOB, eudiometer, weight loss) and in vivo conditions (rabbits: 6 and 12 weeks). The in vitro corrosion environment (e.g., temperature, flow, composition of corrosion solution, exposure time) significantly influenced the corrosion rates of W4 scaffolds compared with corrosion in vivo. Corrosion rates under cell culture conditions for 72 h varied from 1.05 to 3.43 mm y-1 depending on the media composition. Corrosion rates measured in eudiometric systems for 24 h were 24-27 times higher (3.88-4.43 mm y-1) than corrosion in vivo after 6 weeks (0.16 mm y-1). Moreover, it was found that the cell culture media composition significantly influences the ionic composition of the extract by sele ctively dissolving ions from W4 samples or their corrosion products. A pilot in vivo study for 6 and 12 weeks demonstrated active bone remodelling, no foreign body reaction and no clinical observation of gas formation during W4 scaffold implantation. Long-term in vivo studies need to be conducted to prove complete degradation of the W4 scaffold and total replacement by the host tissue.