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Modelling of a 3D-CMOS sensor for time-of-flight measurement

: Kuhla, R.; Hosticka, B.J.; Mengel, P.; Listl, L.


Chatard, J.-P. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Detectors and associated signal processing : 1 - 2 October 2003, St. Etienne, France
Bellingham/Wash.: SPIE, 2004 (SPIE Proceedings Series 5251)
ISBN: 0-8194-5135-5
Conference "Detectors and Associated Signal Processing" <2003, St. Etienne>
Fraunhofer IMS ()
Multiple double short time integration (MDSI); time-of-flight measurement; photon noise in time domain; time response characterization; CMOS-Kamera

A solid state 3D-CMOS camera system for direct time-of-flight image acquisition consisting of a CMOS imaging sensor, a laser diode module for active laser pulse illumination and all optics for image forming is presented, including MDSI (Multiple Double Short Integration) and CDS (Correlated Double Sampling) algorithms for time-of-flight evaluation from intensity imaging.
The investigation is carried out using ideal and real signals. For real signals the narrow infrared laser pulse of the laser diode module and the shutter function of the sensors column circuit were sampled by a new sampling procedure. A discrete sampled shutter function was recorded by using the impulse response of a narrow pulse of FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) = 50ps and an additional delay block with step size DeltaTau = 0.25ns.
A deterministic system model based on LTI (Linear Time Invariant) transfer functions was developed. This visual shutter windows give a good understanding of differences between ideal and real output functions of measurement system. Simulations of shutter and laser pulse brought out an extended linear delay domain from MDSI.
A stochastic model for the transfer function and photon noise in time domain was developed. We used the model to investigate noise in variation the laser pulse shutter configuration.