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Focusing spaceborne/airborne hybrid bistatic SAR data using wavenumber-domain algorithm

: Wang, R.; Loffeld, O.; Nies, H.; Ender, J.H.G.


IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing 47 (2009), Nr.7, Pt.2, S.2275-2283
ISSN: 0196-2892
ISSN: 0018-9413
Fraunhofer FHR

This paper focuses on the bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing in a spaceborne/airborne hybrid bistatic configuration. Due to the extreme differences in platform velocities and slant ranges, the airborne system operates in the inverse sliding-spotlight mode, while the spaceborne system works in the sliding-spotlight mode to achieve a tradeoff between azimuth scene size and azimuth resolution. In this extreme bistatic configuration, our original bistatic formula shows a limitation of accurately describing the bistatic point-target reference spectrum, owing to the assumption of equal contributions of transmitter and receiver to the total Doppler spectrum. We extend our previous formula using the weighting operation where the weighting factor is the ratio of the azimuth time-bandwidth product (TBP) of the platform to the total azimuth TBP. In this paper, the bistatic-deformation and azimuth-dependent range-cell-migration terms were removed with phase multiplications performed blockwise in range-azimuth subsections. The remaining quasi-monostatic term shows the characteristic of the conventional monostatic SAR besides an additional azimuth-scaling term. For the monostatic characteristic, any precision monostatic SAR processing algorithms can handle. In this paper, we prefer the wavenumber-domain algorithm (also known as Omega-K), since it can accurately correct the range dependence of the range-azimuth coupling, as well as the azimuth-frequency dependence. For the azimuth-scaling term, an inverse scaled Fourier transformation is performed to correct it. Finally, a hybrid spaceborne/airborne simulation experiment is conducted to validate the proposed processing procedure.