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Local electronic properties and microstructure of individual laser-fired contacts

: Naumann, V.; Hagendorf, C.; Werner, M.; Henke, B.; Schmidt, C.; Nekarda, J.-F.; Bagdahn, J.


Sinke, W. ; WIP - Renewable Energies, München; European Commission; UNESCO; World Council for Renewable Energy; International Photovoltaic Equipment Association:
24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference 2009. CD-ROM : The compiled State-of-the-Art of PV Solar Technology and Deployment. Proceedings of the International Conference held in Hamburg, 21-25 September 2009
München, 2009
ISBN: 3-936338-25-6
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSEC) <24, 2009, Hamburg>
Fraunhofer IWM ()
lock-in thermography; laser-fired contact; LFC; electrical characterisation

Local electronic properties of the laser-fired contacts (LFCs) are strongly determined by their microstructure and underlying process parameters. In this paper preparation techniques and analytical tools for the electronic characterization on a micrometer-scale and correlated microstructure material properties of individual LFCs have been applied. Lock-in Thermography (LIT) images allow a simple and non-destructive statistical evaluation of a larger number of LFCs in overview as well as high resolution images of local dissipative structures. The resistance of single isolated LFCs measured through four-terminal sensing is correlated with general properties investigated through high-resolution LIT and SEM/EDX. The local element composition within and below LFCs is analyzed by acquisition of depth profiles using dual beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). In addition, areas with non-linear electrical characteristics were localized by means of mapping space charge regions in the contact area with measurements of electron beam induced current (SEM/EBIC).