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Development and status of Cu ball/wedge bonding in 2012

: Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Geißler, U.; Schmitz, S.; Grübl, W.; Schuch, B.


Journal of Electronic Materials 42 (2013), Nr.3, S.558-595
ISSN: 0361-5235
ISSN: 1543-186X
Fraunhofer IZM ()

Starting in the 1980s and continuing right into the last decade, a great deal of research has been published on Cu ball/wedge (Cu B/W) wire bonding. Despite this, the technology has not been established in industrial manufacturing to any meaningful extent. Only spikes in the price of Au, improvements in equipment and techniques, and better understanding of the Cu wire-bonding process have seen Cu B/W bonding become more widespread-initially primarily for consumer goods manufacturing. Cu wire bonding is now expected to soon be used for at least 20% of all ball/wedge-bonded components, and its utilization in more sophisticated applications is around the corner. In light of this progress, the present paper comprehensively reviews the existing literature on this topic and discusses wire-bonding materials, equipment, and tools in the ongoing development of Cu B/W bonding technology. Key bonding techniques, such as flame-off, how to prevent damage to the chip (cratering), and bond formation on various common chip and substrate finishes are also described. Furthermore, apart from discussing quality assessment of Cu wire bonds in the initial state, the paper also provides an overview of Cu bonding reliability, in particular regarding Cu balls on Al metalization at high temperatures and in humidity (including under the influence of halide ions).