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Multidimensional on-line sample preparation of verapamil and its metabolites by a molecularly imprinted polymer coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

: Mullet, W.M.; Walles, M.; Levsen, K.; Borlak, J.; Pawliszyn, J.


Journal of chromatography. B 801 (2004), Nr.2, S.297-306
ISSN: 0378-4347
ISSN: 1570-0232
Fraunhofer ITEM ()
molecularly imprinted polymer; Verapamil

A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material was synthesized selective for verapamil and utilized for on-line metabolic screening of this common calcium antagonist in biological samples. Since some metabolites of verapamil have also shown pharmacological properties, a selective and sensitive sample preparation approach that provides a metabolic profile in biologically relevant samples is important. The MIP material was coupled on-line to a restricted access material (RAM) precolumn. The multidimensional nature of this set-up removed large matrix interferents such as proteins from the sample, while the selectivity of the MIP enabled further cleanup of the smaller analytes. The selectivity and extraction efficiency of the MIP for verapamil and its metabolites was evaluated in various biological matrices, such as cell cultures and urine. The experimental set-up with the developed method enabled the direct injection of biological samples for the selective isolation, preconcentration, identification and analysis of verapamil and its phase I metabolites by LC-MSn. This multidimensional approach provided much qualitative information about the metabolic profile of verapamil in various biological matrices. An analytical method was developed for the quantification of verapamil and gallopamil in urine, plasma and cell culture. Acceptable linearity (R2=0.9996, 0.9982 and 0.9762) with an average injection repeatability (n=3) of 10, 25 and 15% R.S.D. was determined for urine, plasma and cell culture, respectively. This is the first application of the procedure for the selective metabolic screening of verapamil in biological samples.