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New features and functions in implants through additive manufacturing technology and active materials

Neue Eigenschaften und Funktionen von Implantaten durch generative Fertigungstechnologie und aktive Materialien
 
: Rotsch, Christian; Müller, Bernhard; Töppel, Thomas; Böhm, Andrea; Bräunig, Jan; Drossel, Welf-Guntram

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Biomedizinische Technik -DGBMT-; Univ. Freiburg/Brsg., Institut für Mikrosystemtechnik -IMTEK-:
BMT 2012, Biomedizinische Technik. Proceedings 46. DGBMT Jahrestagung : Jena, September 16 - 19, 2012
Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012 (Biomedizinische Technik 57, 2012, Supplement 1)
S.875
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Biomedizinische Technik (DGBMT Jahrestagung) <46, 2012, Jena>
Englisch
Konferenzbeitrag, Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Fraunhofer IWU ()

Abstract
Introduction
At the current state of the art, endoprostheses are predominantly manufactured by cutting, forming or casting technologies. An innovative approach for manufacturing of endoprostheses can be found in the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology of Beam Melting. With that, the implant gets manufactured by layer-wise, local melting of metal powder with a laser or electron beam, based on 3D CAD data.
Methods
Two different approaches of a new implant design and implant functionality were realised. The first approach is the integration of internal functional channels and cavities. The second approach is the combination of Beam Melting technology with new materials. The target is to achieve a homogeneous force distribution at the implant-bone interface by using shape-memory-alloys.
Results
The inner channels and cavities (inner design features) can fulfil various functions within the implant, e. g. local supply of bio-resorbable filler, prevention and treatment of implant loosening even years after implantation, post-operative medical treatment through a medication depot and supply channels, post-operative drainage of blood and wound oozing through the implant, endoscopic examination of implant-bone interface and surrounding tissue and easier and quicker explantation with less damage to the bone structure through local application of soluble. In non-cemented hip implants, stem loosening is mainly caused by a change in force application and insufficient load transmission between implant and osseous anchor bedding. The active components were integrated in hip stems with a new designed surface and inner structures. The results proved that the frictional connection between a stem prosthesis anchored without cement and the femur can be achieved using shape memory alloy elements. So there is a potential to stabilize the prosthesis and increase its useful life.
Conclusion
Additive Manufacturing of implants by means of Beam Melting technologies allows undreamt-of possibilities in the geometric design of implants. In addition to patient specific design and surface or volume structuring of implants, the integration of value-added features in implants e. g. inner and outer structuring and the integration of active elements is a new field of application for Additive Manufacturing technologies in arthroplasty.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/dokumente/N-214378.html