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Materials and technologies for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures with sub-100 nm feature sizes by two-photon polymerization

: Burmeister, Frank; Steenhusen, Sönke; Houbertz, Ruth; Zeitner, Uwe Detlef; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas


Journal of laser applications : JLA 24 (2012), Nr.4, Art. 042014, 6 S.
ISSN: 1042-346X
ISSN: 1938-1387
Fraunhofer ISC ()
Fraunhofer IOF ()
two-photon polymerization; hybrid polymer; ORMOCER; refractive-diffractive hybrid optics; aberration correction

The fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes in large-scale three-dimensional (3D) geometries by two-photon polymerization requires a precise control of the polymeric reactions as well as of the intensity distribution of the ultrashort laser pulses. The authors, therefore, investigate the complex interplay of photoresist, processing parameters, and focusing optics. New types of inorganic- organic hybrid polymers are synthesized and characterized with respect to achievable structure sizes and their degree of crosslinking. For maintaining diffraction-limited focal conditions within the 3D processing region, a special hybrid optics is developed, where spatial and chromatic aberrations are compensated by a diffractive optical element. Feature sizes below 100 nm are demonstrated.