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Subjective and behavioral presence measurement and interactivity in the collaborative augmented reality game TimeWarp

: Pütten, A.M. von der; Klatt, J.; Ten Broeke, S.; McCall, R.; Krämer, N.C.; Wetzel, R.; Blum, L.; Oppermann, L.; Klatt, J.


Interacting with computers 24 (2012), Nr.4, S.317-325
ISSN: 0953-5438
Fraunhofer FIT ()

Presence is usually assessed via a variety of subjective and objective measures. However, constraints often result in subjective measurements using questionnaires as a key method of data collection. In this paper we present a study of 44 participants of a collaborative augmented reality game known as TimeWarp which used both subjective and objective behavioral measures. Behavior as coded from video recordings of one scene of the game and self-reports about feelings of presence were compared. Our findings indicate that pointing behavior and verbal responses to the virtual content are correlated negatively to sense of presence. We further investigated the influence of subjectively perceived interactivity on perceived presence. We found that the interaction possibilities perceived by the participants predicted their experience of social presence with the virtual characters in the game. Furthermore, playing together with another person did not result in decreased social pre sence of the virtual characters. Implications for presence research are discussed.