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Investigation of product quality, sensory profile and ultrastructure of breads made from a range of commercial gluten-free flours compared to their wheat counterparts

: Hager, Anna-Sophie; Wolter, Anika; Czerny, Mariko; Bez, Jürgen; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Czerny, Michael

Volltext ()

European food research and technology 235 (2012), Nr.2, S.333-344
ISSN: 1438-2377
ISSN: 1438-2385
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer IVV ()

Bread is a major staple food consumed daily in all parts of the world. A significant part of the human population cannot tolerate gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, rye and barley, and therefore, products made from alternative cereals are required. During this study, the bread-making potential of seven gluten-free flours, wheat and wholemeal wheat flour was compared. Fermentation potential of the different flours was determined, showing that dough development height of gluten-free and wholemeal wheat samples was lower than for wheat and oat flour. Apart from standard bread quality parameters such as loaf-specific volume and physical crumb texture, also water activity and shelf life have been determined. The shelf life of gluten-free breads was reduced compared to wheat bread. Aroma profiles were evaluated by a trained panel. Wheat, oat and wholemeal wheat breads were liked moderately, while the remaining samples had lower liking scores. Crumb grain characteristic s were investigated using image analysis, and microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Overall, only breads produced from oat flour were of similar quality to wheat bread, and the utilization of buckwheat, rice, maize, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours resulted in breads of inferior quality.