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Virtual reality in medicine

: Müller-Wittig, Wolfgang K.


Kramme, Rüdiger (Ed.); Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter (Ed.); Pozos, Robert Steven (Ed.):
Springer handbook of medical technology
Berlin: Springer, 2011
ISBN: 978-3-540-74657-7
ISBN: 978-3-540-74658-4
ISBN: 3-540-74657-9
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer IGD ()
Virtual Reality in Medicine; computer assisted surgery

Medicine over the past decades has undergone significant changes. In particular, surgery has become increasingly more technology based due to advances and rapid developments in device technology and computer graphics. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has revolutionized surgery introducing optical systems and small surgical instruments. In computer graphics Virtual Reality (VR) allows a more intuitive interaction with three-dimensional (3-D) computer generated environments. Furthermore, Augmented Reality (AR) provides a real-time overlay of reality with digital information. This transformation opens up new opportunities for diagnostics, medical education, preoperative planning and intraoperative support. The traditional see one, do one, teach one educational environment has now changed to simulation-based training where sophisticated surgical procedures can be planned and rehearsed in a safe virtual environment before the patient enters the operating room (OR). In the operating theatre the surgeon's abilities can be enhanced by superimposing computer generated information on the real patient resulting in better navigation and higher precision of the surgical intervention. With the increasing role of quality management and certification in the health care system, medical simulation can lead to improved quality of care and patient outcomes becoming an integral element finally.