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Water re-use in practice: Closing loops in food industry, wastewater reduction in composting plants and municipal wastewater re-use for irrigation purposes

: Issa, M.; Robert, J.; Denecke, M.; Kümmel, R.


Management of environmental quality. An international journal 14 (2003), Nr.5, S.571-576
ISSN: 1477-7835
Fraunhofer UMSICHT Oberhausen ()
Wasserwiederverwendung; Wasserbehandlung; Molkereiprodukt; waste recovery; water treatment; dairy product

Closing water loops in industry and the reuse of wastewater for irrigation purposes should not only be practiced in industrialised countries but it is extremely important in arid or semi-arid regions. This paper shows, on the basis of three case studies, the possibilities of environmental protection on the one hand, and the achievement of financial benefits on the other hand by introducing membrane technology. The case studies are about three different fields, in order to describe that the application of membrane technology leads to an effective water treatment, which makes it possible - depending on the application - to recover valuable materials or to provide suitable service water. In the case of combining biological wastewater treatment and membrane technology the potential of reusing municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes will fit the increasing demands in this sector.