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Density profile of interacting fermions in a one-dimensional optical trap

: Söffing, S.A.; Bortz, M.; Eggert, S.


Physical Review. A 84 (2011), Nr.2, Art. 021602
ISSN: 0556-2791
ISSN: 1050-2947
ISSN: 1094-1622
Fraunhofer ITWM ()

The density distribution of the one-dimensional Hubbard model in a harmonic trapping potential is investigated in order to study the effect of the confining trap. Strong superimposed oscillations are always present on top of a uniform density cloud, which show universal scaling behavior as a function of increasing interactions. An analytical formula is proposed on the basis of bosonization, which describes the density oscillations for all interaction strengths. The wavelength of the dominant oscillation changes with interaction, which indicates the crossover to a spin-incoherent regime. Using the Bethe ansatz the shape of the uniform fermion cloud is analyzed in detail, which can be described by a universal scaling form.